Depends what you mean by both of those terms.
In the context of Rust, reference types (
&mut T) and raw pointer types (
*mut T and
*const T) are completely different kinds of types that simply aren't the same, just as i32 and u32 are not the same type. In particular, they have very different semantics, e.g. Rust references are guaranteed to always refer to a valid value, while Rust pointers can be null. And
&mut T carries a uniqueness guarantee that no other references or pointers are referring/pointing to the same underlying value, but
*mut T pointers are allowed to have aliases. These examples are also critical reasons why you can safely dereference a reference in safe Rust, but dereferencing a Rust raw pointer will always require
What is true is that typically most reference values and raw pointer values get compiled down to assembly/hardware pointers, if they didn't get optimized out entirely. But this fact has nothing to do with your original question.
As we've already said, this has nothing to do with any type's layout. In Rust, comparing references always means dereferencing and comparing the underlying values.
reference == &needle has the same behavior as
*reference == *&needle. This happens long, long before any concept of type layout even enters the picture.
Possibly helpful relevant pithy quotation: