Using `impl` with default types


In this, the below example is there for using impl with stuct as below:

struct Circle {
    x: f64,
    y: f64,
    radius: f64,

impl Circle {
    fn area(&self) -> f64 {
        std::f64::consts::PI * (self.radius * self.radius)

fn main() {
    let c = Circle { x: 0.0, y: 0.0, radius: 2.0 };
    println!("{}", c.area());
// This will print 12.566371

Is there a way to apply impl to standard type, lets say for example I need to write dbl to give me the double of the int, I need to write something like:

impl i32 {
    fn dbl(&self) -> i32 {
        self * self

fn main() {
    let x: i32 = 4;
    println!("The double of {} is {}", x, x.dbl());
// Expected output: The double of 4 is 16

But I got the below error:

enter image description here


You can create a trait and implement in on the primitive (or any.)

trait Dbl {
    fn dbl(&self) -> i32;
impl Dbl for i32 {
    fn dbl(&self) -> i32 {
        self * self


Thanks a lot, it is what I want.


HI @jonh
Is there a way I can implement the same for Vec, I tried as below but got error:

trait  AvgExt {
    fn average(&self) -> f32;
impl AvgExt for Vec<T>{


I need to make AverageExt for the Vec that can give me the average of the vec’s numbers!


Is there a reason not to just write functions?

fn dbl(x: f64) -> f64 {
println!("The double of {} is {}", x, dbl(x));


The “extension trait” idiom works for any type. You’re only getting an error because, as the error message says, impl AvgExt for Vec<T> is invalid because T is not a type defined anywhere.

I assume you want to say “Vec of any type”, and the syntax for that is impl<T> AvgExt for Vec<T>.

But as @droundy said, it’s usually better to just use an ordinary function. There’s not much benefit to an extension trait unless you’re also writing some code that’s generic over that trait.


To add, you’ll also need more bounds on T to allow performing operations on it (eg sum, div, and converting to f32). The num crate is useful here as it has a bunch of traits and impls for the primitive types to this effect.