Hi,
I was curious how does one implement an AND gate between two boolean vectors ? Here what I mean is suppose one has
(0110,1110) and (1111,0000) = (0110,0000)
Any idea as to how I can do that?
Thanks in advance!
Hi,
I was curious how does one implement an AND gate between two boolean vectors ? Here what I mean is suppose one has
(0110,1110) and (1111,0000) = (0110,0000)
Any idea as to how I can do that?
Thanks in advance!
It's the &
operator  same as in many other languages like for example C++
. The trait for it is called BitAnd
, if you'd need to use it in generic context.
So I think you'd use that operator on integers and implement it on your boolean vectors  unsure what exactly they will be  using that.
You can do this using the bitwise &
operator. For example, if your bits are stored in integer types, you can use it like this:
let a = 0b0110_1110;
let b = 0b1111_0000;
let c = a & b;
assert_eq!(c, 0b0110_0000);
If your boolean or integer values are stored in vectors or arrays, you can iterate over them and apply the &
operator to each element:
fn and(a: &[bool], b: &[bool]) > Vec<bool> {
// This simple implementation assumes both inputs have the same length.
assert_eq!(a.len(), b.len());
a.iter().zip(b).map((x, y) x & y).collect()
}
Crates like bitvec provide compact boolean vectors that implement BitAnd
, so you can use the &
operator on them directly.
Thanks that helps!
I have used the exact line as you had said.
mut cs: CS,
a: &[Boolean], r: &[Boolean]
) > Result<Vec<Boolean>, SynthesisError> {
// Flip endianness of each input byte
let input_1: Vec<_> = a
.chunks(8)
.map(c c.iter().rev())
.flatten()
.cloned()
.collect();
let input_2: Vec<_> = r
.chunks(8)
.map(c c.iter().rev())
.flatten()
.cloned()
.collect();
let mid = input_1.iter().zip(input_2).map((x, y) x & y).collect();
// Flip endianness of each output byte
Ok(mid
.chunks(8)
.map(c c.iter().rev())
.flatten()
.cloned()
.collect())
}
But I still get the error,
error[E0369]: no implementation for `&Boolean & Boolean`
> src/main.rs:62:58

62  let mid = input_1.iter().zip(input_2).map((x, y) x & y).collect();
  ^  Boolean
 
 &Boolean
error: aborting due to previous error; 1 warning emitted
For more information about this error, try `rustc explain E0369`.
error: could not compile `multiply`
I don't understand how exactly can I fix it. Please let me know.
Thanks!
Where is the type Boolean
defined?
So Boolean is part of Bellman library,
bellman::gadgets::boolean::Boolean
From the bellman docs we can see that Boolean
does not implement the standard BitAnd
trait, but it does have its own and()
method. Instead of (x & y)
, you can write:
Boolean::and(cs, x, y).unwrap()
If you want to propagate the error instead of unwrapping, something like this should work:
let mid = input_1.iter().zip(input_2).map((x, y) {
Boolean::and(cs, x, y)
}).collect::<Result<Vec<Boolean>, SynthesisError>>()?;
Avoid the unwrap by writing
.map((x, y) Boolean::and(cs, x, y)).collect()?;
actually, you probably need to write
.map((x, y) Boolean::and(&mut cs, x, y)).collect()?;
Alright I am trying these options, I first wrote Boolean::and but now that I see the syntax you have written, think I was wrong, I will get back in a bit
So below is the piece of code that has stopped giving the error but now I have another problem here.
.collect();
let mid = input_1.iter().zip(input_2).map((x, y) Boolean::and(&mut cs, &x, &y)).collect()?;
The error I get is
error[E0282]: type annotations needed
> src/main.rs:67:10

62  let mid = input_1.iter().zip(input_2).map((x, y) Boolean::and(&mut cs, &x, &y)).collect()?;
  consider giving `mid` a type
...
67  Ok(mid
 ^^^ cannot infer type

= note: type must be known at this point
But for this code I am referring to bellman  Rust . But I don't see them here giving a data type, am I missing something ? Please let me know.
Thanks!
Try annotating the .collect()
call like this:
let mid = input_1.iter().zip(input_2)
.map((x, y) Boolean::and(&mut cs, &x, &y))
.collect::<Result<Vec<Boolean>, SynthesisError>>()?;
Thanks a lot, that works perfectly now, the way I wanted. Just curious as to I still don't understand how is the error fixed ?
Iterator::collect
is a generic function defined as:
pub fn collect<B>(self) > B
where
B: FromIterator<Self::Item>,
which returns B
by calling:
B::from_iter(self)
but since FromIterator
can be implemented for various different types, (such as Vec<T>
and String
) if rust can't infer the return type, it doesn't know which type from_iter
is called on, and so you must declare the type yourself.
// this also works because rust now knows that `B` in `collect::<B>()` == `Result<Vec<Boolean>, SynthesisError>`
let mid: Result<Vec<Boolean>, SynthesisError> = input_1.iter().zip(input_2)
.map((x, y) Boolean::and(&mut cs, &x, &y))
.collect()?;
Thanks I understand