Why it is so difficult to pass this &mut db transaction to this closure?

I'm using the below code in my real project. (Obviously this is simplified and one file only for playground.)

Working playground here.

As you can see I'm trying to use a sqlx Transaction from one function to a closure.

But I'm stucked.

I don't even know if this (so common Golang pattern) is the best wat to do in Rust. But at least it should work now.

use std::{future::Future, pin::Pin, sync::Arc};

pub trait Trait: Send + Sync + Player + Shirt {}

impl<T: Player + Shirt> Trait for T {}

pub type Lambda<'a, ArgT, ResT> =
    dyn Fn(ArgT) -> Pin<Box<dyn Future<Output = Result<ResT, String>> + Send + 'a>> + Sync + 'a;

pub trait Player: Send + Sync {
    async fn player_create<'a>(
        &'a self,
        _input: &PlayerInput,
        lambda: &Lambda<'_, PlayerCreateLambdaArgs<'a>, DomainPlayer>,
    ) -> Result<DomainPlayer, String>;

pub trait Shirt: Send + Sync {
    async fn shirt_get_next_and_increase<'a>(
        &'a self,
        tx: &'a mut sqlx::PgConnection,
        model: String,
    ) -> Result<i64, String>;

pub struct Repo {
    pub pool: Arc<sqlx::PgPool>,

impl Repo {
    pub fn new(pool: Arc<sqlx::PgPool>) -> Self {
        Self { pool }

impl Player for Repo {
    async fn player_create<'a>(
        &'a self,
        _input: &PlayerInput,
        lambda: &Lambda<'_, PlayerCreateLambdaArgs<'a>, DomainPlayer>,
    ) -> Result<DomainPlayer, String> {
        let mut tx = self.pool.begin().await.unwrap();

        // use _input here

        let shirt_next_value = Box::new(|model: String| {
            self::Shirt::shirt_get_next_and_increase(self, &mut tx, model)

        let domain_player = lambda(PlayerCreateLambdaArgs { shirt_next_value }).await?;

        let res =
            sqlx::query_as::<_, DomainPlayer>("INSERT INTO player (...) VALUES (...) RETURNING *")
                .fetch_one(&mut *tx)


impl Shirt for Repo {
    async fn shirt_get_next_and_increase<'a>(
        &'a self,
        _tx: &'a mut sqlx::PgConnection,
        _model: String,
    ) -> Result<i64, String> {
        // Here I'm awaiting an async call for DB operations using the same DB transacion of the caller (_tx)...

        // use _tx here...

        let res = 123;


pub struct Needs {
    pub command_pg_repo: Arc<dyn Trait>,

pub struct PlayerInput {
    pub id: String,

#[derive(Debug, Default, Clone, sqlx::FromRow)]
pub struct DomainPlayer {
    pub id: String,
    pub shirt_number: i64,

pub struct PlayerCreateLambdaArgs<'a> {
    // other needed fields here
    pub shirt_next_value: Box<
        dyn Fn(String) -> Pin<Box<dyn Future<Output = Result<i64, String>> + Send + 'a>>
            + Send
            + Sync
            + 'a,

pub struct Handler {
    needs: Arc<Needs>,

impl Handler {
    pub fn new(needs: Arc<Needs>) -> Self {
        Self { needs }

    pub async fn handle(&self, input: &PlayerInput) -> Result<DomainPlayer, String> {
        let res = self
            .player_create(&input, &|args| {
                let input = input;

                Box::pin(async move {
                    let shirt_number = (args.shirt_next_value)("player".to_string()).await?;

                    let o = DomainPlayer {
                        id: input.id.to_string(),



async fn main() -> Result<(), String> {
    let db_conn = sqlx::PgPool::connect("fake_url").await.unwrap();

    let pg_repo = Arc::new(Repo::new(Arc::new(db_conn)));

    let needs = Arc::new(Needs {
        command_pg_repo: pg_repo,

    let handler = Handler::new(needs);

    let new_player_input = PlayerInput {
        id: "abc".to_string(),

    let player = handler.handle(&new_player_input).await?;



The error:

error[E0525]: expected a closure that implements the `Fn` trait, but this closure only implements `FnMut`
  --> src/main.rs:61:41
61 |         let shirt_next_value = Box::new(|model: String| {
   |                                         ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ this closure implements `FnMut`, not `Fn`
62 |             self::Shirt::shirt_get_next_and_increase(self, &mut tx, model)
   |                                                                 -- closure is `FnMut` because it mutates the variable `tx` here
65 |         let domain_player = lambda(PlayerCreateLambdaArgs { shirt_next_value }).await?;
   |                                                             ---------------- the requirement to implement `Fn` derives from here
   = note: required for the cast from `[closure@src/main.rs:61:41: 61:56]` to the object type `dyn Fn(std::string::String) -> Pin<Box<dyn Future<Output = Result<i64, std::string::String>> + Send>> + Send + Sync`

For more information about this error, try `rustc --explain E0525`.

The error is exactly what the compiler says. If a closure mutates a captured variable, then it only implements FnMut and not Fn. It appears to me that you control the internal API, so you could just require FnMut instead of Fn.

Thanks @H2CO3. I tried with FnMut too, but the error then becomes:

error: captured variable cannot escape `FnMut` closure body
  --> src\main.rs:50:13
45 |         let mut tx = self.pool.begin().await.unwrap();
   |             ------ variable defined here
49 |         let shirt_next_value = Box::new(|model: String| {
   |                                                       - inferred to be a `FnMut` closure
50 |             self::Shirt::shirt_get_next_and_increase(self, &mut tx, model)
   |             ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^--^^^^^^^^
   |             |                                                   |
   |             |                                                   variable captured here
   |             returns a reference to a captured variable which escapes the closure body
   = note: `FnMut` closures only have access to their captured variables while they are executing...
   = note: ...therefore, they cannot allow references to captured variables to escape

Rust explorer with the FnMut

@vague I tried to solve this with your previous explanations but I cannot fix it. Can you help me?

Aside from the FnMut, this time the closure captures &'a self which comes out of the method and &mut tx which comes from the method. So the signature is wrong:

lambda: &Lambda<'_, PlayerCreateLambdaArgs<'a>, DomainPlayer> should be a HRTB due to &mut tx.

I tried but didn't figure out a solution.

And there are quirks when using (async) closures.

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