Using PhantomData to indicate ownership

I am trying to figure out what exactly is the effect of adding PhantomData to my program. I understood what's going on with unused lifetime parameters, and how PhantomData helps Rust infer the right variance of the type.

However, the documentation mentions two more use-cases for PhantomData, that are about ownership. In particular, the paragraph "Indicating ownership" is slightly puzzling. I understand that *mut T does not imply any kind of ownership of a T, while PhantomData<T> does. But what I'd like to know is - why should I care? What exactly is Rust doing differently when I add a PhantomData<T> to my unsafe container managing data of type T?

If you'd like to see example code, here it is. LinkedList contains PhantomData, but I don't actually know why, or what would go wrong if I would remove it.

The ownership aspect is important for "Sound Generic Drop", although this may be being tweaked with specialisation.

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That LinkedList design must contain PhantomData because it owns T's and
none of its other subfields otherwise state that. See


Thanks for the pointers!

How do errors manifest themselves in that case? How could you trace your errors to a missing owning T field?

I think errors would manifest in Rust accepting destructors (for the container type in question?) that can result in an invalid borrow being used. One would end up seeing undefined behavior.

Hm, I thought safe rust would be UB free. Although this might be one of those cases where Rust doesn't protect you.

Safe Rust is UB free. We are talking about an unsafely implemented container here. (See the code I linked in my first post.)

Yeah this is only a problem if you have raw pointers and you use them, which is blatantly unsafe.

Oh, I totally, missed the unsafe blocks.