Specifying a restricted lifetime


Thanks for building this great community and keeping it alive, and sorry if I'm duplicating an existing question!

So I'm trying to do some functional programming in Rust and I thought I'd use chained iterators instead of creating new vectors that are copies of the old vectors with just a single value added. I thought it'd be easy - pass an iterator as the "accumulator" parameter to a function, let the function create a iter::once() with the new value, chain the two and pass the result to the next iteration. Yeah, well, it turns out that I still don't understand lifetimes in Rust very well :slight_smile: (no big surprise there)

So for a simple demonstration of what I'm trying to do, here's some working code without iterators:

And here's what I'm actually trying to do::

The compiler complains that "digit" doesn't live long enough, and I kind of understand its reasoning: obviously, "digit" is only valid until the function ends, but the 'a lifetime for the passed-in iterator is waaay longer. However, I do not want to use the 'a lifetime; how do I tell the compiler that the iter::once(&digit).chain(acc) iterator should be considered to have the same lifetime as digit, and not the same lifetime as the passed-in acc?

Or am I misunderstanding something, and is there a way that chaining two iterators could somehow leave a trace beyond the lifetime of the chain itself? I really don't think it should matter - I'm only passing the buit-up chain to another instance of the convert() function, so I ought to be able to tell it to use the shorter lifetime of digit for the recursive invocation of convert()... shouldn't I?

I tried playing around with HRTB a bit (both for and 'b: 'a), but I can't seem to hit on the correct syntax. Help? :slight_smile:


Ah, that's a bit complicated... First of all, char is a small copy type, so there's no reason to use &char, just use char instead.

However, even with this change the code won't compile because of how generics work in Rust. Rust uses monomorphisation, which means that there is a separate instance of generic function for each type parameter used in the program.

And types of xs and xs.chain(ys) differ: they both implement Iterator, but if xs is X and ys is Y, then xs.chain(ys) is Chain<X, Y>. So, this recursive call convert(number / base, base, iter::once(digit).chain(acc)) will cause compiler to generate infinite number of monomorphizations of convert, which it can't do.

Thanks a lot for the explanation! Indeed, it makes sense now. Well, of course, I'd still like an answer for the more general case when the type is a data structure and not a simple char, but let me tackle this one for now.

I guess creating my own iterator type would do the trick, right? sigh let me try that and get back to you... and thanks again!


To solve the particular problem at hand you can use dynamic dispatch and pass &Iterator to convert.

But would say that in general one rarely uses recursion to process sequential data in Rust: it's not as pleasant in Rust as in more functional languages, and there's no guaranteed tall call optimization. For this function, a loop collecting digits into a fixed sized buffer on the stack would be more idiomatic.

I think a more fun and natural way of combining functional programming and Rust would be implementing persistent data structures, like xi-rope does: xi_rope::Rope - Rust