Maintaining lifetimes after FFI clobbers them

Ah yes, the rare “borrow checker is too permissive” topic.

I have a function that passes in references to FnMuts, then internally sends them across an FFI boundary to get registered as a callback from a C function, and returns a handle. When the handle falls out of scope on Rust’s end, its Drop trait unregisters the callbacks. This works (yay) but rustc is not preventing what I think are invalid borrows. For instance, I can do this:

fn this_does_not_seem_safe() -> DeviceCallbackHandle {
    let mut on_device_connect = |device_info: DeviceInfo| {
        println!("{} connected", device_info.uri);

    let mut on_device_disconnect = |device_info: DeviceInfo| {
        println!("{} disconnected", device_info.uri);

    let mut on_device_state_change = |device_info: DeviceInfo, state: DeviceState| {
        println!("{} changed state: {:?}", device_info.uri, state);

    register_device_callbacks(&mut on_device_connect, &mut on_device_disconnect, &mut on_device_state_change).unwrap()

Unless I’m mistaken, the closures fall out of scope at the end of the function, even though C code still references it. To convince rustc that this is the case, I think I need to tie the lifetime of the DeviceCallbackHandle to the lifetimes of the closures, since the handle will unregister the callbacks when it drops, dropping the closure references from C code, but I don’t know how.

I tried adjusting the function signature to add two lifetimes like this:

// Previously there were no lifetime annotations at all
pub fn register_device_callbacks<'cb, 'handle, F1, F2, F3>(
    on_device_connected: &'cb mut F1,
    on_device_disconnected: &'cb mut F2,
    on_device_state_changed: &'cb mut F3
) -> Result<DeviceCallbackHandle<'handle>, Status>
    where F1: FnMut(DeviceInfo), F2: FnMut(DeviceInfo), F3: FnMut(DeviceInfo, DeviceState), 'cb: 'handle {

    // Some code

    let closures = Box::new(ClosureStruct {

    unsafe {
            &mut callbacks, // a struct of `extern "C"` wrapper functions, not shown
            Box::into_raw(closures) as *mut _,
            &mut callbacks_handle, // just ptr::null_mut()

    // Some more code

     Ok(DeviceCallbackHandle {
        _closures_lifetime: PhantomData,

But this backfired. rustc now believes that the handle lasts for longer than it really does, so the handle can never be valid.

fn main() {
    let mut on_device_connect = // closure body
    let mut on_device_disconnect = // closure body
    let mut on_device_state_change = // closure body

    if let Ok(handle) = register_device_callbacks(&mut on_device_connect, &mut on_device_disconnect, &mut on_device_state_change) {
        println!("Got handle {:?}", handle);
        loop { thread::sleep(Duration::from_millis(100)) }
} // error! closures dropped here while still borrowed. really?

('cb : 'handle does mean "'cb matches or outlives 'handle", right?) Does anyone have a clue what the correct annotation is?

The base code works;

Need to know more detail to be helpful. (of ClosureStruct, callbacks, oniRegisterDeviceCallbacks)

It does mean that, but I think you don’t need 'handle at all - register_device_callbacks() should return a DeviceCallbackHandle<'cb>. This extends the mutable borrow of the closures into this struct, but more importantly, it won’t allow this struct to outlive any of the closures.

Thanks, I should have linked the code before:
the other structs

Looks to me like a compiler bug.
Stripped down version;

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There’s a known issue about an expression terminating a block causing the borrow to be extended into the outer scope. It might be or one of the linked issues.

The workaround is usually to introduce a binding and then work with that.

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Yikes, thanks both of you. I guess I see the issue now. Coincidentally, while working on something else I changed the signature of the main function in my last code sample to return fn main() -> Result<(), Status> and used ? for early returns instead of if let, and that change also fixed the issue when I added lifetimes back in.

Amended playgoround: where rustc permits the main function to work, also correctly fails to compile the toy example that intentionally drops the closures early.