How move inner structs inside closure


I’m trying to move inner structs to a closure but when I try I seem to hit the compiler every time.

My first attempt with to move the struct directly as in here

extern crate serde_derive;

extern crate futures;
extern crate futures_cpupool;
extern crate r2d2;
extern crate r2d2_postgres;
extern crate rand;
extern crate serde;
extern crate serde_json;
extern crate tokio_minihttp;
extern crate tokio_proto;
extern crate tokio_service;

use std::io;

use futures::Future;
use futures_cpupool::CpuPool;
use r2d2_postgres::{PostgresConnectionManager, TlsMode};
use rand::Rng;
use tokio_minihttp::{Request, Response};
use tokio_proto::TcpServer;
use tokio_service::Service;

struct Message {
    id: i32,
    body: String,

struct Server {
    thread_pool: CpuPool,
    db_pool: r2d2::Pool<r2d2_postgres::PostgresConnectionManager>,

impl Service for Server {
    type Request = Request;
    type Response = Response;
    type Error = io::Error;
    type Future = Box<Future<Item = Response, Error = io::Error>>;

    fn call(&self, req: Request) -> Self::Future {
        assert_eq!(req.path(), "/db");

        let random_id = rand::thread_rng().gen_range(1, 5);
        let db = self.db_pool.clone();
        let msg = self.thread_pool.spawn_fn(move || {
            let conn = db.get().map_err(|e| {
                io::Error::new(io::ErrorKind::Other, format!("timeout: {}", e))

            let stmt = conn.prepare_cached("SELECT * FROM greetings WHERE id = $1")?;
            let rows = stmt.query(&[&random_id])?;
            let row = rows.get(0);

            Ok(Message {
                id: row.get("id"),
                body: row.get("body"),

        Box::new(|msg| {
            let json = serde_json::to_string(&msg).unwrap();
            let mut response = Response::new();

            response.header("Content-Type", "application/json");

fn main() {
    let addr = "".parse().unwrap();
    let thread_pool = CpuPool::new(10);

    let db_url = "postgres://postgres@localhost";
    let db_config = r2d2::Config::default();
    let db_manager = PostgresConnectionManager::new(db_url, TlsMode::None).unwrap();
    let db_pool = r2d2::Pool::new(db_config, db_manager).unwrap();

    TcpServer::new(tokio_minihttp::Http, addr).serve(move || {
        Ok(Server {
            thread_pool: thread_pool,
            db_pool: db_pool,

But when I got this error this closure implementsFnOnce, notFn``, then I tried to return references rather than

struct Server<'a> {
    thread_pool: &'a CpuPool,
    db_pool: &'a r2d2::Pool<r2d2_postgres::PostgresConnectionManager>,

TcpServer::new(tokio_minihttp::Http, addr).serve(move || {
        Ok(Server {
            thread_pool: &thread_pool,
            db_pool: &db_pool,

But then I got this error

Is there a way to do it without clone?


Use Arc. The TcpServer calls the closure multiple times it needs to be dealing with independently owned memory, regular references are just too bound to the compilers lifetime checking.

struct Server {
    thread_pool: Arc<CpuPool>,
    db_pool: Arc<r2d2::Pool<r2d2_postgres::PostgresConnectionManager>>,

TcpServer::new(tokio_minihttp::Http, addr).serve({
   let thread_pool = Arc::new(thread_pool);
   let db_pool = Arc::new(db_pool);
   move || {
        Ok(Server {
            thread_pool: thread_pool.clone(),
            db_pool: db_pool.clone(),